The first collection delivered to the Museum since March
2020 is a small one, comprised of two sites (one historic, one prehistoric)
totaling 113 artifacts, and including the associated documentation, only
amounts to about a ½ a cubic ft of material. Apogee Environmental & Archaeological
Inc. conducted an additional phase I survey work for a development project
within the Allegheny National Forest in Forest County, Pa. According to Apogee,
potential ground disturbing activities of the project triggering the Section
106 process include: road construction, timber harvesting as well as large wood
lot restoration and others -Apogee 2020(pg.1).
The first site Apogee identified in their survey is 36FO0398,
a historic domestic/industrial site related to the oil extraction industry that
the NW region of Pennsylvania is known for. Several diagnostic artifacts
recovered aided the archaeologists in dating the site to the first half of the
As we’ve mentioned in
previous blog posts nothing is better than finding an artifact with the date
stamped right on it. An “Indian head” penny similar to the one seen here was
recovered from 36FO0398. Although badly corroded, the laboratory technicians
were able to identify its date as 1899. Pennies like this were in circulation
for several decades.
Photo of 1899 penny (Burke collection)
Another object helping archaeologists date the site is this iconic paneled ketchup bottle. The notable lack of ridges on the base of the bottle indicates its manufacture prior to the use of the automatic bottle machine. This particular Owens Company bottle type was produced from 1919-1929 (Apogee pg. 26).
Photo of paneled ketchup bottle from 36FO0398
Despite the ability to tightly date the site, the
determination was made, based on the low artifact density and lack of apparent
association with signification people or events, that it ultimately lacks
sufficient integrity to be considered eligible to the National Register, and no
further work was warranted.
The second site discovered by Apogee, a rockshelter, yielded
just a handful of artifacts, all debitage from making or perhaps resharpening a
stone tool. These tertiary flakes and pieces of shatter (Apogee, pg. 42) of
light grey material could be Onondaga chert, given the site’s relative
proximity to the source of the stone in western New York. No other artifacts
were found in this phase of the investigation.
Photo of debitage packaged for curation from 36FO0396
Notwithstanding the lack of a diagnostic artifact, the small sampling strategy employed by the archaeologists will allow for a more detailed excavation in the future to determine the site’s eligibility to the National Register of Historic Places. Currently considered “unevaluated”, this rockshelter site sitting high above the Tionesta Creek may yet hold clues about prehistoric settlement patterns in this relatively sparsely populated region of Pennsylvania. The oft used phrase “more work needs to be done” reflexively springs to mind.
Curation and preservation of collections and archaeological
sites are at the core of our discipline and these collections, whether large or
small contribute to our understanding of the past. We hope you will continue to
visit our digital media on this blog and our online collection inventory. We hope you
will plan a visit to The State Museum of Pennsylvania where you can view our
exhibits which span 14,000 years of occupation in the Commonwealth.
2020 Apogee Environmental & Archaeological Inc. -
Additional Phase I Heritage Resource Survey for the Jug Handle Project,
Green, Harmony, Hickory, Kingsley and Tionesta Twps. Forest County, Marienville
Ranger District, Allegheny National Forest, PA
Prepared by – Swisher, Christopher K.; E. Quent Winterhoff;
Amanda R. Telep; Sarah M. Heuer