Friday, January 7, 2022

A Look at Infant Care Items from the Turn of the 20th Century

Cultural changes in the 19th century spurred many new choices for mothers caring for infants. Among the new options presented to mothers were artificial infant foods, nursing bottles with rubber nipples, and “soothing syrups” that were aggressively marketed to new mothers. These products, which often made false claims about their safety, were one of many contributing factors to an infant mortality rate that, in some cities, saw 30% of infants die before the age of one. This blog will examine some of the items found during archaeological excavations at one site in Delaware County, Pennsylvania.

 Excavations conducted by Cultural Heritage Research Services, Inc. (CHRS, Inc.) prior to the replacement of the Market Street Bridge in Chichester Township, Delaware County, Pennsylvania uncovered a trove of 19th-early 20th century domestic wares including personal items, dishes, bottles, toys, and other objects. Among the many infant/child related items were glass baby bottles, food containers, and infant medicine bottles dating to the late-19th to early-20th centuries. 

A variety of infant bottles recovered from archaeological investigations at The Market Street Bridge site.

Rubber nipples could be fitted over the lips of these bottles. (Photo courtesy of CHRS, Inc.)

Several styles of nursing bottles were recovered at The Market Street Bridge Site (36De130). Some bottles closely resemble modern bottles with a shallow shoulder and a cylindrical non-rolling design, but others have an oval shaped body that is no longer in use. The artificial nipple, made from India Rubber, was first patented by Elijah Pratt in 1845 was soon adapted for use as a pacifier and with bottles. Poor attention to cleaning bottles and rubber nipples sometimes fostered bacterial growth which could lead to the sickness or death of a child. At the time, the causes behind illness were not widely understood.

Left: A variety of bottle sizes that once contained Eskay’s Albumenized Food (photo courtesy of CHRS, Inc.). Right: An advertisement from Harper’s Magazine Advertiser touting the benefits of Eskay’s Food.

Considering the number of nursing bottles found at The Market Street Bridge Site, it follows that artificial infant food would have been employed. Included in this collection are vessels from Eskay’s Albumenized Food, an infant food developed in late 19th century Philadelphia by druggist Frank Baum. In 1890 Baum was contracted to produce his product by pharmaceutical firm Smith, Kline & French. An advertising campaign for Eskay’s Food touted its ability to save children from starvation and make them into the picture of health. A 1918 analysis questioning the value of such products identified the main carbohydrates contained in Eskay’s Food as raw arrowroot, starch, and milk sugar. Many early infant foods or “milk modifiers” needed to be mixed with milk. Before the adoption of milk pasturization and before refridgeration was readily available at the beginning of the 20th century, milkborne diseases were not uncommon and contributed to infant mortality rates. Moreover, variations in milk quality meant that nutritional consistency of milk modifiers was unattainable.

Bottles from medicinal syrups recovered from The Market Street Bridge Site. Left: Dr. Grove’s Anodyne for Infants, Center: Hoopers Anodyne for Infants, Right: a treatment for digestive orders in infants developed by Llewellyn. (Photo courtesy of CHRS, Inc.)

Early medicinal syrups often contained opium, alcohol, and cannabis as active ingredients. The marketing of “soothing syrups” was targeted at adults and children alike. Evidence of their use at The Market Street Bridge Site can be seen in the bottle assemblage. Among the medicinal bottles indicating infant use were Hooper’s Anodyne for Infants (contains morphine chloride, developed in Chester, PA), Dr. Grove’s Anodyne for Infants (contains morphine sulfate, developed in Philadelphia, PA), Victor’s Infant Relief or Lung Syrup (Victor’s Infant Relief was a mixture of cannabis, spirit of nitre [nitrous ether], and chloroform), and a treatment for digestive disorders for infants (Developed by Philadelphia pharmacist Llewellyn). Not only were many of these patent medicines ineffective at treating ailments, but they could also be deadly for the patient.

 Thankfully, progress in scientific understanding and regulations have improved both the safety and efficacy of infant care products. Through the examination of archaeological remains, we can gain insight into the practices of the past and further appreciate the advancements that have been made.

Visit TheState Museum of Pennsylvania’s to learn about upcoming events and explore the online collection database.


Basalik, Kenneth, and Ruth et al

2015      Phase III Data Recovery Market Street Bridge Site (36DE130), Volume I. Cultural Heritage Research Services, Inc., Lansdale, Pennsylvania


Centers for Disease Control

1999      Achievements in Public Health, 1900-1999: Healthier Mothers and Babies. Morbidity and   Mortality Weekly Report. 48(38);849-858

             Montrose Daily Press [Montrose, Colorado]

1910      Article titled “These Things Kill Babies.” 29 August:3. Montrose, Colorado  Papastavrou, 

Genitsaridi, and Komodiki et al

2015      Breastfeeding in the Course of History. Journal of Pediatrics & Neonatal Care. 2(6), p.00096.

 Wolf, Jacqueline

2001      Don't Kill Your Baby: Public Health and the Decline of Breastfeeding in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. United Kingdom: Ohio State University Press.


For more information, visit or the Hall of Anthropology and Archaeology at The State Museum of Pennsylvania .

Thursday, December 23, 2021

Holidays at the Inn and Tavern

It is that wonderful time of year again when we spend time with friends and family and welcome warm thoughts of holidays past.  We often reminisce of holidays past, and the use of fragrant evergreens and warm candlelight to represent life and light during winter. It is this tradition that has led to the now popular custom of placing lights on Christmas trees. Historians believe that “the Protestant reformer Martin Luther is credited with first decorating a small evergreen tree with candles, representing the stars in the sky that twinkled over Bethlehem,” in the 16th century (Leiser 2015). For centuries candles have been used not only to trim trees and pose as the gathering location for holiday celebrations, but they have also been a beacon for weary travelers and the main source of light in the dark. The artifacts we are discussing today may have done just that.  

With the warmth and lights of the holidays in mind, we are examining the archaeological remains of a candle and candlestick. Recovered during archaeological investigations of a 19th century inn and tavern site, these artifacts may have been used to light a room where friends came to enjoy one another’s company, or to light a window to help guide a traveler to the inn.

Water Street Inn circa 1900 (Pennsylvania State Archives, Ira J. Stouffer Photographs, MG-327, 1915)

In 1842 Lewis Mytinger built a large brick hotel and tavern called the Water Street Inn. The inn stood at the junction of two major roads in the village of Water Street in Huntingdon County, Pennsylvania. A gathering place for locals and travelers alike, the inn was leased to a series of innkeepers for several years, before being used as a girls’ boarding school in the early 1850’s.  In the early 1920’s the inn underwent extensive renovations, but soon after began to deteriorate.

Water Street Inn site in 1991 (Heberling 2015)

The inn continued to function as a tavern until the 1970s when fire damaged the structure and the southern end of the building collapsed. In 1992 archaeological investigations began for PennDOT’s Water Street intersection improvements, and in 1995 the remaining structure and ruins were razed for public safety reasons.

Archaeologists recovered this copper alloy candlestick during their investigation. It is identified as a socket candlestick due to the socket or pocket, where the candle is placed. The holder has an out-turned rim, a hollow shaft, and a short, broken tube on the bottom that would have fit into the missing base (Hume 1969, Geake 2019). This candlestick’s period of manufacture began during the late 16th century and continued through the 18th century (Geake 2019). Since this candlestick was found on a 19th century site, it may have been a family heirloom that had been passed down through generations and ended up at this inn. In the 17th century the popular sport of candle jumping, a game where young girls would jump over a lit candle trying not to put out the flame, was another use for candlesticks (González and Hatch 2019).  Perhaps this candlestick and the game had been passed down through a family to one of the young girls that had attended the boarding school located in the former Water Street Inn.

Candlestick and candle fragment from Water Street Inn Collection (36Hu151), The State Museum of Pennsylvania 

When the inn and tavern were constructed, there was no electricity, and the main light source for rooms would have been candlelight or oil lamps. Along with the candlestick holder a section of a white tapered candle was also recovered from the site. The wick is missing from the candle, but the hole where it once existed remains. Wax candles have been made for centuries, but major developments in candle making occurred in the 1820s when French chemist, Michel Chevreul discovered how to extract stearic acid from animal fats, creating stearic wax. Joseph Morgan developed a machine that permitted continuous production of molded candles in 1834, making candles more affordable and less laborious to produce. By the mid-1850s paraffin wax was first produced, which then led to the mix of paraffin wax and stearic acid for a higher burning point, resulting in a much stronger and odorless burning candle (National Candle Association 2020). The candle found at the Water Street Inn site is most likely a 19th or 20th century molded candle.

 We often take for granted the ability to flip a switch and turn on a light, but the use of candles for lighting the way is still an essential tool in many regions of the world. The lighting of candles is an important cultural tradition for many and illustrates the important role that light plays in our lives. The Water Street Inn and Tavern had a long history likely filled with interesting people, colorful personalities and happy children who may have been brought together by this candle. We hope you have enjoyed this “enlightening” bit on candles and Pennsylvania history and our efforts to bring the past to life. We wish you all a happy and healthy holiday season!

View additional candlesticks in the collections from The Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission. 



Geake, Helen

2019      Finds Recording Guides: Candle holders. The British Museum. Electronic document,, accessed December 15, 2021.


González, Kerry S. and Brad Hatch

2019      It Was Colonel Weedon With a Candlestick on Sophia Street: Another “Clue” to Fredericksburg’s Past. Electronic document,, accessed December 15, 2021.


Heberling, Scott D., Brenda Carr, and Patti L. Byra

2015      Phase III Archaeological Data Recovery Water Street Inn Site (36Hu151), Prepared for Pennsylvania Department of Transportation Engineering District 9-0 and the Federal Highway Administration. Heberling Associates, Alexandria, PA.


Hume, Ivor Noel

1969      A Guide to Artifacts of Colonial America. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia (reprint)


Leiser, Amy

2015      History of the Pennsylvania Christmas Tree. Monroe County Historical Association. Electronic document,, accessed December 14, 2021.


National Candle Association

2020      History. Electronic document,, accessed December 15, 2021



For more information, visit or the Hall of Anthropology and Archaeology at The State Museum of Pennsylvania .

Friday, December 10, 2021

Raise Your Tankard and Toast to National Lager Day!

1880 image from the digital collections of the Library of Congress 

Today (Dec. 10) is National Lager Day and we thought it would be fun to discuss this important libation and highlight examples of the tableware from our collections used to enjoy it.  According to some, “lager is the most popular beer on the planet” (Brewer, July 30, 2014).  This is most likely due to its origins in Northern Europe, primarily Bavaria and Germany and their later immigration, taking with them proficient beer making skills.

Prior to the 16th century the fermentation of malts, hops, and water (Scientific America, 1859) was done in a warmer climate using Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, otherwise known as brewer’s yeast.  This process is known as surface fermentation because the yeast collects at the top like a “scum” (Scientific America, 1881).  It was a faster process that was less temperature sensitive and produced ale.  

Sometime in the 1500’s beer makers discovered a slower fermentation process that used a different yeast Saccharomyces Pastorianus to produce lager.  This slower process is referred to as under fermentation, where the yeast collected under the liquid as opposed to at its surface. The process is also referred to as bottom-fermentation.  This beverage was more temperature sensitive and required a cooler setting between 40° to 50° Fahrenheit, meaning that it was typically prepared between October to May (Scientific America, 1881). The term lager is derived from the German word lagern, meaning “to store”. The cold temperatures of northern Europe were ideal for this winter activity. Both men and women produced lagers and ales.  

The Virginia Company colonists at Jamestown, Virginia were producing ales as early as 1607, some more successfully than others. The basic ingredients of water, grain (barley, corn oats, wheat or rye), sugar (molasses or honey), and hops in the right combination were boiled for several hours.  Yeast was sprinkled on during the cooling process.  The boiling of this mixture killed bacteria that were present in drinking waters which were a health hazard in urban colonial settlements.

Dawson's Brewery, Northwest Corner of 10th and Filbert Streets, Philadelphia, 1831. Library of Congress

Pennsylvania has a long history of beer production. Learn more.   

Archaeologists at the University of Pennsylvania examined residues on ceramic collections and discovered new information about the earliest brewing of beer and wine. Improved methods of specialized analysis have yielded information regarding early trade, use of honey in brewing, and the partaking of the beverage prior to the entombment of King Midas’s father, Gordion around 740-700 BC. Stanford archaeologists have examined 13,000-year-old stone mortars from a graveyard site in Israel and recovered evidence of brewed beers predating cultivated cereals. In essence, the theory is that the demand for brewed beer was a motivating factor to the domestication of cereals. Rituals and feasting are important elements of social organization, in this case it demonstrates their bond to hunter-gatherer ancestors.

The collections of The State Museum of Pennsylvania, Section of Archaeology contain extensive examples of drinking vessels suitable for enjoying these delectable drinks. One of the most common forms recovered from sites across the Commonwealth is the tankard. Tankards are cylindrical drinking vessels that come in a variety of sizes that are made from many materials including wood, ceramics, glass, and metal. Some examples may include hinged lids, but this is not necessarily required to be considered a tankard. It is suggested that lids were attached to keep foreign debris such as plaster, dirt, and insects out of the beverage especially when consumed in more rustic environs. Another interesting design of some tankards, especially those made of metal, was the inclusion of a glass bottom. Some suggest that this was included for the consumer to be able to see the approach of danger or enemies, but others think it may have been a way to evade the ‘the king’s shilling’ which could be slipped into a drink and then used to force the conscription of the consumer into the army or navy.

Have you ever heard the phrase “watch your P’s and Q’s”? It is believed that this colloquialism harkens back to a time when the size of your tankard could accommodate up to 4 pints or two quarts of your favorite beverage and if a bartender reminded you to “mind your P’s and Q’s” they were telling you to watch how much you were drinking.

Earthenware tankards from the Philadelphia Market Street Collection

Some of these tankards are identified as redware, a form of earthenware. It is probably the most common ware found throughout the colonial period and is still produced today making it a poor indicator for period of manufacture.  These tankards were found in an archaeological context that suggests an early to mid-19th century date.

Mocha pearlware tankards from the Philadelphia Market Street Collection

These tankards are a beautiful example of pearlware with a mocha design and date to the early 19th century.

Transfer printed pearlware tankards from the Philadelphia Market Street Collection

These tankards are also pearlware but exhibit both a polychrome and a monochrome transfer print design.  They date to the same period as the mocha wares above, the early 19th century.

These stoneware tankards below are of the Nottingham-type with incised and rouletted designs suggesting they date to the 18th century. The vessel farthest to the right is a bit unusual in design as it’s gray body and darker metallic glaze may indicate it was over fired.

Stoneware tankards from the Philadelphia Market Street Collection, The State Museum of Pennsylvania.

And last but certainly not least, a handsome example of a glass tankard. This example of a trailed glass tankard was created by applying hot trails of glass onto the vessel’s body to create the design. This vessel likely dates to the late 18th century and was recovered during excavations at Pennsbury Manor.

Glass tankard from the Pennsbury Manor in Bucks County

We hope you have enjoyed this thirst inducing glimpse of “the most popular beer on the planet” and the early tankards used to enjoy it on National Lager Day! To view additional drinking vessels please visit the online collections of the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission.


Brewer, Bob (2014, July 30). Lager: The Most Popular Beer on the Planet. Anchor Brewing.

Li Liu, Jiajing Wang, Danny Rosenberg, Hao Zhao, György Lengyel, Dani Nadel,

Fermented beverage and food storage in 13,000 y-old stone mortars at Raqefet Cave, Israel: Investigating Natufian ritual feasting, Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, Volume 21, October 2018, pages 783-793.

Scientific America. (1859, July 16). Lager Beer. Scientific America 1(3): 35

Scientific America. (1881, March 26). Lager Beer. Scientific America 44(13): 192-193

For more information, visit or the Hall of Anthropology and Archaeology at The State Museum of Pennsylvania .